перевод текста Alfred Nobel- a man of contracts, английский язык
What Happened to Crane?
On one side of the Hudson River there was a little village where people told many terrible stories. The most terrible story was one about a headless horseman.
Many years ago, a school teacher, Crane by name, lived in that village. Katrina Van Tassel lived in the same village. She was a beautiful young woman, and many young men wanted to marry her. Crane, also, loved her, and people thought she liked him. So all the other young men were against Crane, especially Brunt, a strong young man who was popular with the village people.
One afternoon Crane received a letter asking him to come to a party at Van Tassel’s house.
So Crane went to the party. There were many young people there. They were all dancing and enjoying themselves.
When the party was almost over, Crane suddenly left the ball-room with Katrina. The teacher did not look happy when they came back to the ball-room.
It was late in the night when Crane got on his horse and started back home. It was very dark in the forest, and he began remembering all terrible stories he had read about the headless horseman. Suddenly his horse stopped. Crane looked around. Near the river a horseman on a black horse stood. Then Crane’s horse started off again at a gallop. The black horse did the same. Crane heard it and looked behind him. He could not believe his eyes because the horseman was holding his head in his hand. Crane tried to get away and made his horse gallop faster and faster; but the headless horseman followed him. Then he threw the head at Crane. It hit Crane on the head throwing him off his horse. The headless horseman galloped past and disappeared.
The next morning people found Crane’s horse but nobody saw the school teacher himself. They went to look for him, and on the ground near the river they found only his hat and a large pumpkin.
A few years later, a farmer went to another village. When he came back, he brought news that Crane lived there and worked at school.
Some time after Crane disappeared, Brunt married Katrina. People still talked about the headless horseman. But when the story of Crane was told, the listeners saw that Brunt’s eyes became bright. So they thought that he knew more about it than he wanted to tell.
1.What did Crane see on his way home?
2.Who do you think was the headless horseman? Why?
3.What did Crane think was in the horseman’s hand?
Uncle Tom Saves a Little Girl
A large boat was going down the Mississippi on its way to New Orleans.
One of the passengers on the boat was a young gentleman, St.Clare by name. He had a daughter between five and six years of age with him. The child was so beautiful that people turned and looked after her as she went by.
Tom, who liked children very much, watched the little girl with great interest when she walked round the place where black men and women sat in their chains. She looked at them and thought how unhappy those Negro slaves were. Several times she brought fruit and cakes and gave them to the black people.
Tom watched the little girl for a long time.
“What’s your name, little girl?” he asked at last.
“Evangeline St.Clare,” said the little girl, “but papa and everybody else call me Eva. Now, what’s your name?”
“My name’s Tom; the little children call me Uncle Tom.”
“Then I want to call you Uncle Tom,” said Eva. “So, Uncle Tom, where are you going?”
“I don’t know, Miss Eva. I am going to be sold to somebody. I don’t know who.”
“My papa can buy you,” said Eva quickly, “and if he buys you, you will have good times. I’ll ask him to buy you today.”
“Thank you, my little lady,” said Tom.
The boat here stopped at a small settlement, and Eva ran to her father. They were standing together at the side of the boat. Suddenly the little girl lost her balance and fell over the side of the boat. Her father was going to jump after her, but was stopped by someone behind him who jumped into the water. It was Tom whose hands were not chained at that time.
Tom saw Eva fell into the water, and was after her in a moment. He caught the child in his arms, and, swimming with her to the boatside, handed her up to her father.
1.Who were some of the passengers on the boat?
2.How did the little girl help the Negro slaves on the boat?
3.What happened when the boat stopped at a small settlement?
How Does a Lake Die?
LAKE ERIE IS DYING
DEATH OF A GREAT LAKE
LAKE ERIE – A DEAD SEA
People in the USA and Canada may read headlines like these in newspapers or see reports on television about Lake Erie. This big lake is not dead yet, but it is in danger of dying.
Like many lakes in North America, Lake Erie was born more than 10,000 years ago. Its area is 25,745 square kilometres. Lake Erie is the oldest and shallowest of the Great Lakes, so it is natural that it is dying faster than the others.
But it is dying not only because a lot of soil, dead plants, and animal materials are carried into it. Pollution is the greatest danger. Waste products of many kinds are brought into the lake by rivers from cities and industries. Some of the wastes kill fish and some kill the life on the bottom of the lake. When plants growing in the lake die, they go down to the bottom. The same thing happens to plant life that falls into the water. There they decay. But the process of decay is impossible without oxygen, and in Lake Erie there is so much waste that most or all of the oxygen is taken from the water. Most of the dacay stops, and the wastes accumulate on the bottom. It was found that over 2,500 square kilometers of the lake’s bottom waters have no oxygen at all.
As decay takes oxygen from the water, the animal life becomes very difficult in Lake Erie. The fish that are best for food are disappearing. They need very much oxygen.
The pollution of Lake Erie is a great danger not only for fish, but also for people, especially for children. In many places swimming in its waters is impossible now because of the danger to health.
Biologists think that Lake Erie will take not less than twenty years to clean itself of undecayed wastes if all pollution is stopped now. City and state governments in both Canada and the USA are trying to clean up Lake Erie and put a stop to the thousands of tons of industrial and city wastes that flow into the lake. But progress is slow, and much money is needed, both by city and state organisations and by factories to do the work well.
There is also another thing which specialists worry about: navigation on the Great Lakes. The waste products thrown into the water by cities and industries, together with the mud brought down by the rivers, may make the lakes very shallow and swampy and useless for navigation. The Great Lakes may become swamp-land and lost in future to the economy both of Canada and the USA.
1.What headlines to articles about Lake Erie may be seen in newspapers?
2.Why is Lake Erie dying?
3.Why is pollution of Lake Erie so dangerous?
Ideas About Dinosaurs
We know a lot about dinosaurs. But there is a lot we don’t know. There are many theories, for example, about why they died out, but we do not know which of them is correct.
But there are no dinosaurs around now, so we cannot easily learn about their lives. All we have are dinosaur fossils – mostly bones and footprints in stone.
At the same time our knowledge about dinosaurs is growing. New fossils are discovered every year by palaeontologists. We have now a better understanding of the climate and other conditions of long ago when the dinosaurs lived.
The first dinosaur fossils were discovered about one hundred and fifty years ago. By studying the skeletons of dinosaurs palaeontologists believe that dinosaurs were a lot like crocodiles and other reptiles that live today. They also believed for a long time that dinosaurs were cold-blooded.
We have all seen pictures showing cold-blooded dinosaurs living in tropical conditions. The biggest of all are usually shown living in shallow lakes and swamps.
This picture can be wrong. Some palaeontologists now think that dinosaurs were warm-blooded. Others do not agree with it; they still believe that all dinosaurs were cold-blooded.
What more can we learn from fossils and other things? Well, if dinosaurs were warm-blooded, they could have lived in regions which had cool nights and cool seasons. Perhaps they migrated to cooler climates for the summer and back to warmer ones for the winter.
The idea that some dinosaurs were warm-blooded also helps to explain why there were many kinds of smaller dinosaurs. They had skeletons which were good for fast running, which cold-blooded animals cannot do.
One of the ideas about dinosaurs is that there is little difference between the skeletons of small dinosaurs and the fossil skeletons of the world’s first-known birds. The palaeontologists who hold this theory believe that the dinosaurs did not all die out. Small ones changed and became what we call birds. If this is correct, then we can think of today’s birds as dinosaurs flying in the air!
1.When were the first dinosaur fossils discovered?
2.What theory about dinosaurs can be wrong?
3.What theories about dinosaurs do palaeontologists discuss?
The Hurricane Hunters
All along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, from August till November, meteorologists watch for hurricanes, which are very dangerous storms. The wind in a hurricane blows round and round in a spiral. In the centre of a hurricane there is a small area, known as the “eye” where there is good weather. Usually hurricanes are given girls’ names like Carla, Betsy, and Camille. A hurricane is really a very strong tropical cyclone. The girl’s name is used for radio communications. Easy-to-remember names help operators not to make mistakes during radio talks about the movements of a hurricane.
The men who risk their lives each year by flying into the eye of a hurricane to get information about it are known as “Hurricane Hunters”. They are a part of the Air Weather Service, a world organisation, made up of over 200 weather stations.
Flying their special planes, the Hurricane Hunters collect important information of a storm’s intensity, its eye position, its movement, and the area it covers. This information then goes to land, where it is quickly sent to weather bureaus to tell them that a dangerous hurricane is coming and when it will reach a given place.
When a storm is found, it comes under the careful watch of the Hurricane Hunters to see if it is growing stronger. When a wind reaches a force of more than sixty kilometres per hour, meteorologists call it a tropical storm or cyclone and it receives its official name. When a tropical cyclone reaches a wind force of over one hundred kilometers, it becomes a hurricane. If a great hurricane causes serious damage, its name is not used any more. In choosing the names, all letters of the alphabet are used but not Q, U, X, Y, and Z. Some of the names for hurricanes given in the past years were Alice, Brenda, Christina, Katrina, Loretta, Wilda and others.
1.What are hurricanes?
2.What work do Hurricane Hunters do?
3.What is the difference between a tropical storm and a hurricane?
Life as I Find
The man lives in Philadelphia, who, when young and poor, entered a bank, and said: “Please, sir, don’t you want a boy?” And the bank man said: “No, little boy, I don’t want a little boy.”
The little boy went down the steps of the bank. The bank man stepped behind a door for he thought the little boy was going to throw a stone at him. But the little boy picked up something, and stuck it in his poor jacket.
“Come here, little boy,” the bank man said, and the little boy came up to him, “What did you pick up?” The little boy answered: “A pin.” And the bank man said: “Little boy, are you good?” and he said he was. And the bank man said: “Do you go to school?” and he said he did.
Then the bank man took a pen made of gold, and wrote, on a piece of paper, “St.Peter”, and he asked the little boy what it stood for, and he said: “Salt Peter.” Then the bank man said it meant “Saint Peter”. Then the little boy said: “Oh!”
Then the bank man took the little boy into partnership, and gave him half the profits and all the capital, and he married the bank man’s daughter and now all he has is all his, and all his own too.
My uncle told me this story, and I spent six weeks in picking pins in front of the bank. I expected the bank man would call in and say: “Little boy, are you good?” and I was going to say, “Yes,” and when he asked me what “St.John” stood for, I was going to say “Salt John”. But the bank man didn’t want to have a partner, for one day he said to me, “Little boy, what’s that you’re picking up?” I said, “Pins.” He said, “Let see them.” And he took them, and I took off my cap, ready to go in the bank and become a partner, and marry his daughter. But I didn’t get an invitation. He said, “Those pins belong to the bank, and if I catch you hanging around any more I’ll set the dog on you!” Then I left and the old man kept the pins. Such is life as I find it.
1.What did the boy do when he entered a bank?
2.What did he pick up on the steps of the bank?
3.Did the boy understand what the bank man wrote on a piece of paper?
Mr. Smith Goes in for Art
Mr. Smith was a rich business man. He was seventy-six and he was ill.
“I can’t do anything with the old man,” his servant Koppel told the doctor. “He doesn’t want to eat. He doesn’t want me to read to him. He doesn’t like anything.”
“I have an idea how to make him interested in life,” the doctor said.
When he entered the old man’s room, he asked him, “How would you like to study art?”
“I like the idea! But how can I start?”
“I can ask a student from an art school to teach you.”
An art student named Frank Swain was invited to give lessons to Mr. Smith. The young man gave a lot of lessons, and when the doctor came, the old man always talked about art.
When spring came, Mr. Smith made a picture. It looked terrible. But the old man said, “I am going to give it to the exhibition at the Lathrop Museum.”
The reader must know that this exhibition was one of the most important in the USA and the Lathrop Museum gave prizes to the best artists.
“We must stop him!” Frank Swain said. “The picture is terrible and people will laugh at Mr. Smith.”
“No, no,” the doctor said, “the old man is ill and art makes him feel better.”
Two days before the exhibition was closed a letter came to Mr. Smith.
“Read it to me,” the old man asked Koppel.
“We inform Mr. Smith,” the letter said, “that he is given the first prize of one thousand dollars for his picture.”
Frank and Koppel were greatly surprised.
“I am happy to hear such wonderful news,” the doctor said. “Now you see, Mr. Smith, that art is much better than business.”
“Art is nothing,” said the old man, “I bought the Lathrop Museum last month.”
1.Why wasn’t Mr. Smith interested in life?
2.What did the doctor decide to do?
3.Why did Mr. Smith get the first prize?
The Clever Poor Man
One day, a poor man was riding a horse to a small town. In the evening he tied his horse to a tree and sat down under it to eat his supper. Soon a rich man stopped near him and began to tie his horse to the same tree.
“I advise you not to tie your horse to that tree,” said the poor man.
“My horse can kill yours. Tie it better to another tree.”
But the rich man answered, “I’ll tie my horse where I like.”
A few minutes later, the two horses began to fight. The men ran up to them, but it was too late – the rich man’s horse was dead.
“You’ll have to pay for my horse,” said the rich man, “it was a very good horse,” So he brought the poor man before a judge.
The judge asked the poor man, “Is it true that your horse has killed his horse?”
The poor man did not answer. The judge asked him many questions, but the poor man did not say a word. At last the judge said, “What can I do? This man cannot speak!”
“Oh,” said the rich man, “he can speak as well as you and I can. He spoke to me when I met him.”
“What did he say?”
“He told me not to tie my horse to the tree where his horse was tied to. He said that his horse could kill my horse.”
“Oh,” said the judge, “now I see that you are not right. You cannot make him pay. He told you not to tie your horse to that tree.”
Then he turned to the poor man and asked him why he had not answered his questions. “I didn’t answer your questions,” said the poor man, “because I knew that you would believe a rich man sooner than a poor man. So I wanted him to tell you everything. Now you see who was right and who was wrong.”
1.What do know about the two men who met on a road one day?
2.What did the poor man advise the rich man to do?
3.Why didn’t the poor man answer the judge’s questions?
Jim and Della
Jim and Della were two young people, a husband and a wife. They loved each other very much. They lived in a small room in an old house in one of the dirty streets of New York.
They worked from early morning till late at night, but they got very little money for their work. And still they had two things which were very dear to them – Jim’s watch and Della’s beautiful long hair.
Christmas was coming and Della wanted to give Jim a nice present, but she had no money. She really did not know what to do. She sat on the sofa and began to cry. Suddenly an idea came up to her. She stood up in front of the mirror and looked at her beautiful long hair. Then she left the house and in a few minutes she was already at the hairdresser’s shop.
“Will you buy my hair?” she asked. The hairdresser looked at her hair and said, “Yes, I will. It’s fine hair. I can give you twenty dollars for it.” Della was very happy. She took the money and went to buy a present
for her husband. In one of the shops she saw a very beautiful watch-chain. “I’ll buy it, Jim will be very glad,” she said to herself. “He needs a chain for his watch.”
So Della bought a gold watch-chain as a Christmas present for Jim. When she got home, Jim was already there waiting for her. He looked at his smiling little wife and understood everything.
“Why did you do it?” he asked.
“Dear Jim, my hair will grow and I wanted to give you a present. Here it is,” and she put the watch-chain into his hand.
The beautiful chain, Della’s present, was of no use to him. He had sold his gold watch to buy a Christmas present for his wife. He took a packet out of his pocket and gave it to Della. She opened it and saw two beautiful combs, the combs that she had seen in a shop window and had wanted for so long.
1.Where did Jim and Della live?
2.What things were dear to them?
3.What did Jim and Della buy? Why?
One day I went into a bookshop to have a look at some new books.
The manager of the bookshop, Mr. Brickhill, led me to the back of the shop where, he said, I could find some books that might interest me.
While I was looking through them, I was able to watch Mr.Brickhill at work with his customers.
When I first looked up, a fashionably dressed woman was standing beside him and Mr. Brickhill was showing her a book.
“Are you quite sure it’s his latest?” The lady said to Mr. Brickhill.
“Oh, yes, Mrs. Jackson,” answered the manager. “This is Mr. Slush’s latest book. Everybody wants to have it. It’s a wonderful book. Some people think it’s the most wonderful book of the season.”
I looked at the title; it was Golden Dreams. Mrs. Jackson bought it.
Another lady entered the bookshop. She was in mourning and asked the manager to show her some new books.
“Here’s a fine thing, madam, Golden Dreams ,a very fine story; the critics say that it’s one of the finest things Mr. Slush has written. It’s a love story. My wife was reading it out loud only last night. The main character, a girl, was very unhappy.”
The lady bought the book and left the shop.
“Have you any good light reading for holiday time?” asked the next customer.
“Yes,” said Mr. Brickhill, “here is Golden Dreams, the most humorous book of the season. I laughed all the time I was reading it.”
The lady paid for the book and went out.
And each customer who entered the shop went away with Golden Dreams. To one lady the manager sold Golden Dreams as holiday reading, to another as a book to read after a holiday. One customer bought it to read on a rainy day and anotheras the right book for a fine day.
Before leaving the bookshop I went up to the manager and asked:
“Do you like that book yourself?”
“Oh!” said the manager, “I have no idea what it’s about, I have no time to read every book I have to sell.”
“And did your wife really like the book?”
“I’m not married, sir,” answered the manager.
1.Where did the author go one day?
2.What kind of book did all the customers want to buy?
3.Why did the manager recommend Golden Dreams to read?
Hinemoa was the beautiful daughter of a Maori leader who lived on the shore of the great lake.
One day Hinemoa’s father gave a great feast at which all the young men were present. Each young man tried to dance as well as he could because each man hoped to win the heart and hand of the young lady.
Hinemoa liked one of them most of all. He was a young man from a small island on the lake, and he loved Hinemoa very much. But when Hinemoa told her father that she loved him, the old leader got very angry and said that the young man was not noble.
“Noble or not noble,” answered Hinemoa, “he is the man I love!”
This made her father more angry. He said, “If he comes to the shore again, I will kill him.”
Every night Hinemoa went to the shore of the lake but she never found a canoe there which could take her over the water. Hinemoa’s father had told his men to take canoes away every night and hide them.
However, Hinemoa didn’t lose hope. She decided to swim to the island. One night she started on her long, dangerous swim.
The night was dark and she could not see the island. She was a strong swimmer but after many hours she became weak. Just then the moon came out and she saw that the island was quite near. A few minutes more, and she felt the stones under her feet.
At the place where she came ashore there was a hot spring. She entered the warm water, rested, and warmed her cold body. Then she found the young man. They became a husband and a wife. They lived happily for many years.
The hot spring which gave Hinemoa life and strength is known even now as Hinemoa’s Bath.
1.What did the young men do at the feast given by Hinemoa’s father?
2.How did Hinemoa reach the island?
3.Why is the hot spring famous?
Once Walt Irvine and his wife Madge, who lived in a small cottage in the mountains, found a dog. He was thin and weak, but he did not let them touch him. He ate the food they gave him only after they had gone away. But when he was strong again, he disappeared.
A few months later, when Irvine was in a train between California and Oregon, he looked out of the window and saw this dog running along the road, two hundred miles away from home. He got off the train at the nearest station, bought a piece of meat, caught the dog and took him home again. So Wolf, as they called him, came a second time to the mountain cottage. There he was tied up for a week.
To win him became a problem, but Irvine liked problems. At the end of the week he tied a piece of thin bright metal round the dog’s neck with the words: RETURN TO IRVINE, GLEN ELLEN, CALIFORNIA. Then the dog was let go, and he disappeared. A day later came a telegram. In twenty hours Wolf had run over a hundred miles to the north, and was still going when caught.
This time, he was sent back by express train. He was tied up for three days, and was let go on the fourth. And he disappeared again.
As soon as he was given his freedom he always ran north. He was always brought back weak and always ran away fresh and strong.
At last the dog decided to stay at the cottage, but Irvine and his wife had to wait a long time before they could touch him. When at last he let them do it, they said it was a great victory. The man and woman loved the dog very much; perhaps this was because it had been such a task to win his love.
1.Was the dog that the Irvines found fresh and strong or was it weak?
2.Where did Walt see his dog after he had disappeared the first time?
3.Did the dog run to the south or to the north as soon as he received freedom?
Man has been trying to make his life easier for many centuries. In doing so, he invented machines and instruments. They have been working and polluting the world we live in.
In this world around us, there are two things that do not belong to any one country: air and ocean water. In both the air and the water, there is much pollution. People are concerned about the air and the water used by everyone, and they are also concerned about the future of the Earth.
One of the most important pollution problems is in the oceans. Many ships sail in the ocean water – fishing ships, some ships carrying people, some carrying oil. If a ship loses some of the oil in the water, or trash from the ships is put into the ocean, the water becomes dirty. Many birds and fish die because of the polluted water. Many fish are dying in the sea, others are getting contaminated. Fishermen catch contaminated fish which may be sold in markets and people may get sick from eating them.
Fish may also move to another part of the ocean. Lakes and rivers are getting polluted, too. Some beaches are considered dangerous for swimming.
The second important problem is air pollution. Cars and factories pollute the air we use. It is also destroys the ozone layer which protects the Earth from the dangerous light of the Sun.
A great problem is coal burning that pollutes the air very much.
Another problem is that our forests are dying from acid rain. This, in turn, affects the balance of nature.
If we want our children to live in the same world we live in, or in a better and healthier world, we must learn to protect the water, the air and the earth from polluting.
Economics have long thought of the environment as an unlimited source of resources. They have thought that the atmosphere, forests, rivers and seas are capable of absorbing all the rubbish the economy throws into them. In fact, the economy and the environment are closely related. The environment supplies the economy with all its resources, such as water, timber, minerals and oil. The environment has to absorb all its waste products.
Nevertheless, some economists have always argued that pollution damages the resources. For example, pumping waste gases from a power station does not get rid of them. The waste gases cause acid rain; this leads to forest damage and therefore reduces the resources of forestry industry.
There are many consequences of damaging the environment. One of them is acid rain. Another one is water shortage resulting from abuse of arable lands in agriculture. The third one is destroying the ozone layer of the Earth through pollution from factories and plants. The fourth problem is damage to water and soils. The fifth one is damage to wildlife: numerous species of animals and plants can disappear. Lastly, the most serious dangerarising from damaging the environment is the result of the above-mentioned consequences. This is the danger for the life and health of the man.
The territories of the former Soviet Union are suffering many environmental problems. Many of these problems have been caused by economic activities. Apart from the effect of the Chernobyl disaster, the worst problem is probably in the area around the Aral Sea. Cotton growing in the region has used huge quantities of water, and the sea’s level has fallen by 14 yards. This destroyed fishing industry and led to a damage in soils, crops, and wildlife. Many forests in the north of European Russia and the Far East are under threat. A system of dams on the Volga has caused damage to fish.
If we are unable to learn to use the environment carefully and protect it from damage caused by man’s activities, very soon we’ll have no world to live in.
Healthy Living Guide
There is nothing more important than health. “Health is above wealth”, wise people say, because you can’t be good at your studies or work well if you don’t take care of your health. Sport helps people to keep in good health and to become strong, to develop physically and it makes them more organised and better disciplined in their daily activities.
We all need to exercise. Even if we don’t plan to make a career in sport we still have to practice. Regular exercises give people more energy. Sport builds character, it makes us strong. It makes men out of boys. It helps to meet people and to become good friends. Sport teaches us to win and to lose. And, of course, those people who go in for different kinds of sports are in a good shape.
Sport is very important, but you shouldn’t forget about healthy food and good sleep for seven or eight hours. Obesity and physical inactivity are known from ancient times. They are joined by the modern bad habits: smoking and drinking too much alcohol, sleeping too much or too little, eating between meals and skipping breakfast. In combination these bad habits can lead to different diseases and sometimes even worse.
As for me I try to take care of my health, though sometimes it’s very difficult. In the morning I usually do my morning exercises. In summer I ride a bike a lot, play badminton, go hiking. In winter I ski in the forest, which is nearby.
But I have some problems with the food. I like cakes and chocolate very much. And it’s difficult for me to give up the sweets. Sometimes I’m lazy to do morning exercises. But I can be proud of myself as this year I have started to go to the swimming pool twice a week and never missed it. I enjoy it and think that any sports activity makes my body more flexible, helps me to feel better and to relax.
Some students like school, others think they have it, but they all study nine or eleven years and get knowledge. For students who do well in most subjects and are interested in getting higher education, school is an attractive place. But those who are not successful in learning, who are pressed by the teachers and their parents, think that school is boring and uninteresting place. As for me I think that school is a great place.
I’m a pupil of the 9th form. My school is modern. There are classrooms, laboratories, workshops, rooms for manual works for girls, a very big and beautiful assembly hall, a library, two gyms, a school canteen, etc.
I go to school six days a week. Our classes start at 8.30 a.m. and last till 2 p.m. Every day we have five or six lessons. During breaks we go to the school canteen to have a snack, revise homework, talk to each other, etc. We learn a lot of subjects at school. They are: Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Russian, Literature, History, English and others.
I really like going to school. First of all it’s interesting for me to learn a lot of new things every day. My favourite subjects are history, literature and English. I think we are very lucky to have such knowledgeable teachers. They tell us a lot of interesting things, always ask our opinion and involve us in very interesting discussions on this or that subject. Very often after such debates I try to find more information in the books about all these things.
We participate in extracurricular activities, as school is not only a place of formal education, it’s a place where we realise and demonstrate our individual talents. For example, we have an arts club, a dancing club, sports sections, a drama club.
School helps us to develop our social relationships and mutual respect. I have some friends among my classmates. We spend a lot of time together after school. One of my classmates is my real friend. It’s very important to know that your friend always keeps promises and tries to do his best for you.
I like my school, I like to study and communicate with my friends. And, of course, I have a great respect to the teachers for what they have done for us. So I can say that school years are happy years for me.
What can you tell about your school?
Education in the Russian Federation
Russians have always shown a great concern for education. The right to education is stated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. It is ensured by compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools, and higher education establishments. It is also ensured by the development of extramural and evening courses and the system of state scholarship and grants.
Education in Russia is compulsory up to the 11th form inclusive. The stages of compulsory schooling in Russia are: primary education and secondary education. Every school has a “core curriculum” of academic subjects, such as Russian, Literature, Mathematics, History, a foreign language and others. Lyceums and gymnasiums offer programmes giving a profound knowledge in some field of study.
After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which offers programmes of academic subjects and a programme of training in a technical field, or a profession.
After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a gymnasium one can go on in higher education. All applicants must take competitive examinations. Higher education institutions, that is, institutes or universities, offer a 5-year programme of academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a postgraduate course. If one finishes a postgraduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidate’s degree or a doctoral degree.
An institute or a university has a number of faculties, each in a field of study.
The system of secondary and higher education in Russia is going through a transitional period. The main objectives of the reform are: to decentralise the higher educational system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give more academic freedoms to faculties and students. All secondary schools, institutes and universities until recently have been funded by the state. Now there is quite a number of private-fee-paying primary and secondary schools; some universities have fee-paying departments.
It’s very difficult to choose your future profession. It’s not an easy task to make the right choice.
What is a “profession”? It’s an occupation, which requires advanced education and special training. Perhaps the best way to prepare for any job is to get a good education - to do well at school and to learn all you can outside the school. Jobs change and new ones are constantly appearing. In some years there will be many more new jobs nobody knows anything about today. To make a right choice it’s necessary to take into account the character and ability of a person. If you like to work with figures, solve mathematical problems and you are interested in how and why things work, may be right work for you is in a scientific and computational field. If you enjoy being with the people and helping them, you can think about a career of a psychologist, teacher, etc. To become a good doctor you should have very good knowledge in chemistry, biology and be very patient and kind. The teacher’s work requires love to children and profound knowledge of the subject. If you like to work quietly and concentrate on the task, then in the future you can be an architect, artist, librarian, bank clerk and so on. If you like to be with people and organise things for them, then one of the following careers will suit you: a travel agent, journalist, hotel manager, etc.
It’s very important to get satisfaction from the job, to earn good money and to have friendly atmosphere in the place of work.
Some students want to be guides or interpreters and work in tourism. It’s very interesting to show English-speaking people the sights of Moscow, to tell them about our history, to travel all over the country, to discuss the most important questions and to meet new people from whom you can learn a lot. Besides, this profession is very useful because it helps people to understand each other. I think this is the most exciting and interesting job.
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